Understanding and Managing Your Anxiety – Part 2

–By Lawrence Kaufman; 561-302-0568; contact@kaufmancounseling.com; www.kaufmancounseling.com

People experience anxiety in many different ways, forms, and intensities. It is helpful to think of anxiety as existing on a spectrum – from the mildest, to the most severe and extreme. So, for example, a person can experience slight anxiety — over a certain “trigger” — that quickly fades away, or can experience a full-blown and long-lasting anxiety attack that causes a great deal of unpleasantness, unproductiveness, and fear.

Emma experiences anxiety in many different circumstances, and in many different ways. “I’m usually anxious about one thing or another. So many things, so many activities, and so many people set me off, in so many ways, and for so long. I wish I wasn’t this way. But, I’ve been this way my entire life. I would like to find relief from being so sensitive and over-reacting.”

Noah, in contrast, experiences distressing anxiety only occasionally, and in very specific ways. “I so dislike having to speak in front of groups of people. I have bad test anxiety too. I hate the pressure of having to perform. I’m embarrassed to admit that this also happens around sex as well.”

The word “anxiety” can be used in so many different ways, and can have different meanings for different people. People can sometimes use other words – such as “nervous,” “uptight,” “uncomfortable,” and “sensitive” – to mean, basically, the same thing. This can make it difficult to understand what others are actually experiencing, and therefore, how to best respond to them.

To make communication and understanding even more complex – when some people say they are “anxious” they may be experiencing a mental (emotional) state, or a physical (physiological/ bodily) state or sensation.

Some ideas for you to consider to help yourself manage your anxiety:

  1. Keep a daily (confidential) journal where you can think about and reflect upon the anxieties of your daily life. Be specific about what you think has triggered off these anxieties, and try to connect your present reactions to emotionally similar past events in your life.
  2. Talk to a trusted and respected friend, spouse/ partner, relative, psychotherapist/ counselor, sponsor, physician, etc., about what you are struggling with. You might get important, helpful, and supportive feedback on this issue.
  3. Read self-help books and magazine articles, and watch television programs that can help you get valuable information, perspective, and insight into your problems.
  4. As an effective strategy, don’t allow your anxious feelings to build up without adequately processing (digesting, metabolizing) them. Being focused on, and on top of your anxiety (and all other feelings as well, for that matter) is a good prescription for a happier, less stressed life.
  5. Related to point 4 above, know your limits of how much anxiety you can tolerate and benefit from. Having too much anxiety – just as having too little anxiety – could work against your constructive functioning and happiness in life. Learn to take necessary breaks, and distract yourself when necessary (but not excessively), in order to maintain a healthy balance in your life. Keep to the middle of the emotional road, most of the time.
  6. Make it a priority to frequently distinguish between good and bad anxiety. Distinguish between anxiety as a (helpful) signal, and anxiety as a (harmful) symptom. Beware of trying to “get rid of” your anxiety by “self-medication”. (You will probably end up with more problems in the long run if you follow this strategy.) Keep in mind that anxiety, in one form or another, will be with you for the rest of your life. So, make your best efforts to try to understand it in a deeper way. Focus on transforming and mastering it! View it as a necessary tool for learning about and improving yourself.
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Understanding and Managing Your Anxiety – Part 1

–By Lawrence Kaufman; 561-302-0568; contact@kaufmancounseling.com; www.kaufmancounseling.com

First a definition (and there are many different ones): Anxiety concerns the fear, nervousness, or threat related to what might happen, or what is currently happening internally (in the inner world) — and/or externally (in the outside world).

Anxiety has gotten a bad rap. Many self-help books and popular articles focus on getting rid of, or overcoming anxiety. This approach to anxiety seems to be quite appealing to the readers of these publications. However, from the perspective of many psychotherapists, this is not the most helpful, beneficial, or balanced view. The goal of this alternative view is to learn how to master anxiety – not temporarily “get rid of it.” This is a more ambitious goal. It focuses on the medium and long term, instead of the short term. It focuses on insight, rather than distraction.

A more psychologically sophisticated view of anxiety can be gained — in a way — by comparing, anxiety with cholesterol. Just as there is good (HDL) cholesterol, and bad (LDL) cholesterol –there is good anxiety, and bad anxiety.  Just as it isn’t in your best interests to reduce all cholesterol in your body, it isn’t in your best interests to eliminate all anxiety in your mind/ body. (That is, trying to eliminate all anxiety in your mind and body operating cooperatively — as a unit.)

Think about how it would affect you if you stopped having the ability to recognize or experience pain in your body. Specifically, think about what the consequences would be for you if you weren’t able to feel the pain from cavities in your teeth. The pain you feel from tooth decay is a signal that something is the matter and needs your immediate attention. Because you are able to be aware of this pain, you have a conscious choice of whether you will choose to see a dentist, or not. This signal communicates very important information to you about the state of your body. Anxiety is similar in how it works in your mind. If you ignore or minimize pain or distress in your body or in your mind, you could be putting yourself at risk.

Many self-help and psychological approaches emphasize reducing or trying to extinguish anxiety. This certainly has a very important place in managing our lives. It can be extremely distressing and uncomfortable to experience non-productive and burdensome varieties of anxiety. On one extreme end of the anxiety spectrum is panic attacks.

Sometimes, for example, people go a hospital emergency room due to the fear that they are having a heart attack. (And getting medical help is a very wise idea. It is extremely important to rule out physical and medical causes of your symptoms.) However, sometimes people experience physical/ bodily symptoms because they are unable to experience emotional and mental signals or symptoms. Put another way, some people, at some times, experience anxiety in their bodies, instead of in their minds. Emotional and mental issues and problems become transformed, and become located in their bodies. Effective psychotherapy helps people identify and put word labels on their feelings and thoughts and then communicate them to the therapist and others. The more you can verbalize your inner experiences, the less need you will then have to express them through your body, actions (behavior), and other symptoms.

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How to Improve Your Communication Skills in Your Committed Relationship

–By Lawrence Kaufman; 561-302-0568; contact@kaufmancounseling.com; www.kaufmancounseling.com

Schedule a regular time to talk together about your relationship issues!

Spontaneous interactions are fine, but planned times to talk are essential as well. (For example, you can agree to have a serious conversation together every Friday evening from 8 – 8:30.) To prepare for this talk, you may want to write yourself notes during the week as an aid in remembering what you would like to focus on.

Follow the “equal time rule.” Each partner talks for half the time. Communication often deteriorates when one person talks more than the other.

Try to limit the time you spend talking. A few sentences at a time often works best.

This is hard for most people to do. It takes time and effort to learn how to say less during your turn of talking. Talking for a shorter period of time helps your partner listen to, remember, and digest better what you have said. Making more than one point at a time can complicate communication.

Use “I” statements instead of “You” statements. That is, start your statements to the other using the word “I.” In this way, you are taking personal ownership for what you are saying. Starting statements with “you” not infrequently is experienced by the other as blaming and/ or attacking. He/she may then react and/or respond defensively.

Give priority to identifying and expressing your feelings. Thoughts, opinions, and ideas are very important too, but focusing on feelings will give you better results in the medium and long term. Most people find it much easier to identify and say their thoughts than their feelings. A major goal of a deeper and more effective kind of therapy is to be able to quickly distinguish between thoughts and feelings.

Be careful not to express thoughts disguised as feelings. (An example of this is starting a sentence by saying: “I feel you are…”) Often people indirectly rather than directly express their feelings (as through the tone of their voice, or facial expressions). This can lead to a lot of problems and complications in interactions between partners.

If the conversation is not going well, temporarily put the content of what you are talking about on hold.  Focus on the process (how you are talking to one another) rather than on the content (what you are talking about). This is a time to step back, observe, and reflect upon what has just been going on between the two of you. Work together, in a cooperative partnership to try to determine what “pressed your buttons” (That is, what triggered off your negative feelings towards one another.) and jointly see if you can figure out better, more effective, and satisfying ways of talking with another.


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What to Avoid Saying and Expressing in Your Intimate Relationship

–By Lawrence Kaufman; 561-302-0568; contact@kaufmancounseling.com; www.kaufmancounseling.com

Based on the many years of experience I have had working professionally with couples, I have listed below some of the least helpful things to say (or not say), or do when discussing serious relational issues with your partner. These “dirty dozen,” dysfunctional (psychologically damaging, ineffective, or counterproductive) strategies or approaches, serve as triggers to set the other off defensively. Following some of these points, I have included explanations as to why I think these types of communications are best avoided, and I suggest some alternatives you may have, to saying or using them.

Conversations with your partner are more likely to deteriorate and become derailed (thrown off course) when you:

1. Say “That’s not true!”

This makes it sound like you, unlike your partner, know the real facts — the way things really are. Receivers of these words tend to feel put off in response. Just because you believe something to be true, doesn’t make it true. Perspectives are not facts. What is true for one person may not be true for another. It is more constructive to think in terms of, and express, your own opinions, perspectives, and points of view.

2. Ask questions (especially those starting with “why”) instead of making statements.

When people are asked questions they not infrequently feel attacked or threatened, and then respond in a defensive way. Almost as a reflex, many people tend to feel put on the spot, or trapped, when asked questions. They may wonder what your (bad) motives or motivations are for asking the questions. Example: Instead of asking: “Why didn’t you tell me that sooner?”, you might say, “I’m disappointed and puzzled by your not telling me that sooner.”

3. Express yourself in exaggerated ways.

Examples: Saying “You never have anything nice to say to me.” “You always raise your voice when talking to me.” “You let me down all the time.” These kinds of statements can be felt by the recipient to be attacking, harshly critical, untrue, provocative, etc. To increase the likelihood that your listener will be receptive, open, and non-defensive to what you express, you might, for example, phrase your comments as follows: “I feel disappointed and put off that you didn’t stop at the grocery store as you had agreed.” “I feel criticized and hurt by the way you are talking to me.” By communicating in these more constructive ways, you are both asserting yourself and avoiding provoking an unnecessary and distracting counter-response (a tit-for-tat, I’ll get back at you, response).

4. Use sarcasm and express contempt.

(Note: I am defining “contempt” here as the attitude of having no respect, concern, or valuing of someone. “Sarcasm” here is defined as the use of stinging, cutting, or hurtful remarks, made with the intention of wounding another’s sensitive feelings.) These kinds of messages need to be eliminated from your communication repertoire. These are put-downs and expressions of disrespect. They are attacks on the partner’s self-esteem and self-worth. They can wound the other deeply and cause lasting damage in your relationship. Examples: “That’s the most ridiculous thing I ever heard!” “Thanks a lot!” (said when the speaker is actually feeling quite critical of you).

5. Don’t respond to what your partner is saying or asking.

Sometimes listeners change the subject, stonewall (frustratingly refuse to comply or cooperate), shift the focus from themselves back on to the other, evade directly answering the other’s question, or pass over what the other has just said, as if they never heard it in the first place. Another “strategy” some listeners have is to suddenly tell the other they have something very important to take care of at that moment (and perhaps adding that they will talk about it later — but have no intention of ever doing so). Even more dramatic, some partners angrily say something like “This conversation is over!”, or they “just” walk out of the room.

6. Interrupt your partner in the middle of his/her sentence or thought.

This is also known as “talking over” what the other is saying, or talking at the same time as the other person. When people do this, they tend to talk louder and faster — as if to overpower the other. They strongly want to be heard and are forceful about it — sometimes aggressive. This is sometimes done consciously, but is often done out of conscious awareness.

Put another way, when the interrupting person does this he or she is functioning on “auto-pilot.” This (as with many other forms of communication) has probably been learned in early childhood, in the family one grew up in (one’s “family of origin,” as it is technically called). Communication styles are passed down from one generation to the next, usually without conscious awareness or reflection about this process. This is a dysfunctional (or not constructive) form of communication.

Communicating in this manner can lead to confusion, resentment, frustration, and power struggles. In general, timing is a key consideration in deciding when to say something, or not, in a conversation. It is empathic (sensitive, tuned in) to be able to hear the other out, “wait your turn,” and respect the psychological space of the other. These are important skills that can be learned with patience and practice.

7. Use commands or orders (telling people what to do) when talking to your partner.

This is a style of communicating people often use with young children and pets — especially with dogs. Examples of this style of communication include the following: “Tell me what you are feeling!” “Make sure you are on time!” “Don’t raise your voice!” “Listen to what I am saying!” “Make sure you take out the garbage!” The recipients of such commands or orders often feel resentful, controlled, put down, put in their place, etc.

8. Express your negative feelings indirectly instead of directly.

That is, instead of expressing your feelings directly in words, you express them indirectly — as in your tone of voice, facial expressions, hand gestures, etc. (Note: Researchers have found that 90% of all communication is non-verbal.) For example, instead of saying “I feel annoyed and frustrated with you,” you might instead say with an irritated and louder tone in your voice, “You didn’t answer my question!” This kind of statement often stimulates and initiates a negative interaction cycle (where one negative and critical comment stimulates a similar response from the other).

9. Monologue, dominate, and “broadcast,” — speaking considerably more than 50% of the time.

These are ways in which to sabotage the possibility of having an effective and productive interchange. People resent engaging in one-way conversations, or being lectured or dominated in discussions. You will generally achieve better results if you keep your turns of talking short and to the point, and if you don’t talk any more than your partner does. I suggest you keep the “equal time rule” in mind whenever engaging in a serious conversation with your partner.

10. Express yourself in judgmental, non-constructively critical ways.

It is destructive to blame, shame, attack, accuse, belittle, ridicule, and put down your partner. As well, it is harmful to speak in condescending, contemptuous, and patronizing ways. Also, don’t ever call one another names, such as “bitch” or “bastard.” Avoid saying such things as: “You shouldn’t do that.” “That wasn’t a nice thing to say.” “You sound just as controlling as your mother (father, boss, son, daughter, etc.)” “You look like a slut in that dress.” “All you care about is money!”

11. Think and express yourself in “either/or,” “black or white”, or “this or that” ways.

(Technically, this is called dichotomous thinking.) For instance, some couples hit a wall and get stuck in their conversations when they can’t get beyond feeling convinced that one of them is right, and the other is wrong. They are unable to imagine, or conceive of the possibility that there could be a third (or fourth, etc.) perspective, point of view, or way of seeing a problem between them. For them, compromise, flexibility, or creative problem solving is just not an option or possibility. So, they may be doomed to repeat endlessly the same arguments — never finding a resolution.

12. Are overly pessimistic, overly optimistic, or alternate between these two extremes.

Here it is important to remind yourself to be realistic in your expectations of both the other and yourself. Change in significant relationships usually occurs slowly and gradually (although at times it occurs in dramatic leaps forward). Avoid the common myths that tell you such things as: “You can’t change anyone, just yourself.” and “Love can conquer all problems in a romantic relationship.” In my way of thinking, if it weren’t possible to influence anyone (for the better) then all counseling and psychotherapy would be ineffective (which I clearly disagree with). On the other hand, if you have excessive and unrealistic expectations of changing or transforming your partner, or yourself, you are going to be setting yourself up for a big disappointment and let down.


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The Primary Importance of Feelings in Couple Therapy

–By Lawrence Kaufman; 561-302-0568; contact@kaufmancounseling.com; www.kaufmancounseling.com

Picture listening in on a small part of an argument Sharon and Jake are having with one another:

Sharon: “How many times do I have to tell you to clean up your dishes after you eat. You are so irresponsible. Why don’t you grow up! I’m not your mother.”

Jake: “Don’t be such a nag! You’re always getting on my case for one reason or another. Why do you have to be so critical? You don’t think about all the things I do do for you.”

I could go on extensively with this dysfunctional (ineffective, nonconstructive) somewhat typical “dialogue,” but we already have plenty of material (information) to analyze, think about, and learn from. First, notice that neither one of them actually says what they are feeling. (This might not be immediately apparent.) Their negative feelings are implied but not stated directly.

We can assume that they are probably communicating their negative feelings towards one another mainly through their tones of voice, facial expressions, bodily movements, etc. That is, their negative (aversive) feelings towards one another are communicated nonverbally and paralinguistically (through the verbal accompaniments of their voices — also called prosody). They probably are not considering the possibility that some of what they are currently feeling and perceiving is colored (influenced, distorted), transferred, and replicated (duplicated, repeated) from significant relationships in their pasts.

In their interchange they never say things like: “I feel angry (frustrated, resentful, fed up, furious, etc.”) They probably can’t easily identify, label, and express their feelings while they are having them. We could say that they are not as yet emotionally literate. They do not as yet have the skills necessary to effectively and constructively communicate with one another. They probably get stuck in the same dysfunctional (abnormal, unhealthy) arguments over and over again.

Instead of talking in such a way where problems might be talked out constructively, and resolutions found, they blame, shame, mock, put down, belittle, scold, and non-constructively criticize one another. Clearly they need a lot of help. But how much help will they actually get from the couple therapist they see?

A great majority of couple therapists focus on clients’ thinking, reasoning, and behavior. Not infrequently, their clients’ feelings (emotions) are downplayed, passed over, or not even perceived. So what happens, again not infrequently, is that the partners go for couples therapy for a while, don’t feel they are making much progress, and then stop going to sessions.

They often leave therapy without talking out their dissatisfactions with their therapist. They do not give their therapist the chance, time, and necessary feedback in which to make modifications to their therapy so as to be able to help them get more out of it. So, they are just as dysfunctional in communicating with their therapist as they are with one another.

Further, a great majority of couple therapists do not deal (or deal much) on an unconscious level. As a result, even if feelings are focused on, the clients do not get to the deeper root causes of the feelings they are currently having problems and difficulties with. And here I am referring not to just conscious memories clients have of the past — whether in their relationship or in their childhoods. In my view, these conscious memories are just the tip of the iceberg.

Most feelings (and thoughts, attitudes, beliefs, expectations, perceptions, bodily experiences, etc.) occur on a non-conscious or unconscious level. If one focuses just on the conscious surface of each individual’s mind, or the couple’s dialogue, one will miss out on most of what is occurring within each individual’s mind and between the partners in the couple. Put another way, in terms of information processing, by restricting one’s attention and focus only to what is going on consciously, one will not be able to access or make use of all the potential, valuable information about the couple’s problems that is hidden, buried, or unformed deep down within them. Research from brain science (neuroscience) confirms the view of the primary importance of focusing on feelings and non-conscious events in the mind.

It is my perspective that solid progress is much more likely to occur in couple therapy when feelings and emotions are put in the forefront (not in the background) of the therapeutic work. I believe that couple therapists who emphasize feelings over cognitions (thoughts, beliefs, perceptions, etc.) and behaviors (actions) will be in a much better position to be able to help their suffering, distressed, and frustrated clients. Dysfunctional, interactional patterns (the repetitive, often escalating [closer to being out of control]) discussions that take place between partners, need to be disrupted. Partners need to be given effective and more psychologically mature alternatives to their failed attempts to make things better between them. Real hope is possible to significantly improve relationships when quality, emotionally focused, depth therapy is provided.


There are many different models (approaches, theories) therapists use in their practices of doing couple therapy. One way of thinking about, organizing, and comparing these models is to place them into broad categories. Theoretical models/ approaches include the following: Behavioral, Humanistic, Existential, Psychodynamic/ Psychoanalytic, Transgenerational, Social Constructionist, Systemic, and Integrative. There are many ways of placing the large variety of these approaches into different categories.

Clients usually do not know (nor are they particularly interested in knowing about) the technicalities involved here. They are more interested (which is quite understandable) in what works for them — what helps them solve problems between them, and what helps them communicate and feel better about one another, and themselves. They are also interested in what they think about, and how comfortable and compatible they feel with, their therapist.

In conclusion, I am presenting the point of view that focusing on feelings and emotions in couple therapy is of central importance. Helping partners to think and communicate more rationally and logically is very important, but helping partners to manage and regulate their emotions is of primary importance. When most people get drawn into, and swept up in a highly charged emotional battle with one another, their capacities to make use of their thinking skills (mediated or overseen predominantly in the left brain [hemisphere]) become impaired. We need to give a priority to helping couples master their emotions so that they won’t be taken over and hijacked by them. In neuroscience (brain science) terms, we need to be more focused on the functioning of the right brain (or hemisphere) (which predominantly mediates or processes emotions) than the left.


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How to Get the Most from Couple Therapy

–By Lawrence Kaufman; 561-302-0568; contact@kaufmancounseling.com; www.kaufmancounseling.com


So, you have decided to give couple therapy/ counseling a chance? Or perhaps you have already started? I commend you for your courage, openness, and hopefulness to take advantage of this valuable therapeutic service. Hopefully, both of you will give it, and your therapist, a fair try.

Couple therapy (as any psychological therapy or counseling) takes time to demonstrate and give clear evidence of its full effectiveness. Somewhat like taking antibiotics, you need to take your doses of therapy regularly, for a long enough period of time, in order to get the fullest benefit.

Below, I have listed a number of additional points for you to keep in mind to help you get the maximum benefit from your participation in couple therapy:


What You Can Do Prior to Meeting With a Therapist

If you haven’t already started couple therapy, make sure to select a therapist/counselor who specializes in this form of therapy. Similar to selecting an appropriate type of physician to see, you need to make sure that your therapist of choice is specially trained and experienced working with couples. For example, if you were having a problem with your heart you would see a cardiologist, not a dermatologist. Many therapists either do not work with couples or infrequently work with them. Couple therapy is not a particular specialty for them.

Before contacting a therapist, check out his/ her website. Some therapists have a separate page on couple therapy on their website. This can be filled with important and revealing information on how the therapist thinks and works with couples. Also, this will give you an opportunity to see what does and does not appeal to you. Different therapists have varied theoretical orientations (different ways of understanding and conceptualizing [or thinking about] clients’ problems and difficulties) and different methods of working with clients.

If you haven’t already selected a therapist, you may wish to consider having a consultation with more than one professional. This way, you will have the opportunity to compare and contrast their styles and levels of competence, and your sense of “fit” with them. You can start forming some initial impressions as to how much you think they might be able to help you.

If you decide not to see more than one therapist before you make a decision (let’s say because of the cost, time, and energy involved), you (and/ or your partner) can briefly speak with several therapists, over the phone, without cost, before you make an appointment with one of them.


How Long Does Couple Therapy Take?

This is an important question. Many therapists/ counselors — even those who specialize working with couples — say they work “briefly”. (For example, from the beginning of your work together, they will inform you that you will be meeting a set or limited number of times — perhaps 10 -12 sessions.) This is appealing and sounds tempting to many prospective (potential) clients. But beware! Some people are looking for “a quick fix” or seriously underestimate just how long it might take to effectively produce significant and lasting results in couple therapy.

I, myself, work in an open-ended way. I cannot predict beforehand “how long it [the process of therapy] will take.” Every couple has their own story to tell, their own set of problems that are a challenge to them, their own goals, and differing psychological resources they bring into the therapy setting.

I view every couple as being unique. I realize that what works for one couple may not work for another. Couple therapy needs to be tailor-made (individualized) in order to be most effective. This is opposite to what has been called a “cookie cutter” approach where clients are expected to fit into a preexisting mold — as a particular, favored theoretical approach or method of a therapist. Put another way, I use my extensive theoretical knowledge and experience to fit the specific and unique needs of a couple client as opposed to fitting a couple client into a narrow, preconceived approach. (Note: I use the term “couple client” because I see myself as “treating” a relationship — not just two, separate individuals.)

Most couples I have worked with have longstanding and complex problems — together and individually. Clients and therapists need to be realistic as to how much time it usually takes to get to the roots of the couple’s problems, and to supplement the couple’s old patterns, stories, “tapes,” and “programming,” with new patterns, stories, “tapes,” and “programming.” In this way — gradually, and step-by-step — old unhealthy, dysfunctional, ineffective, and unproductive ways of relating to one another are replaced by healthy, functional, effective, and productive alternative ways of relating.


Meet with the Couple Therapist Together or Alone?

Once you meet with a therapist in person, you can decide together (and this is indeed a joint decision) how much you and your partner want to meet in conjoint sessions (ones in which both of you are present) or individual sessions. There are advantages and disadvantages of meeting in each modality. (Note: A “modality” is a format or form of therapy — as with individual, conjoint [joint], family, or group sessions.)


What Happens Between Sessions?

Therapists work in different ways with regard to what happens between sessions. For example, some couple therapists often give their clients “homework” assignments, while others do not. Some therapists and clients believe that homework speeds up their therapy process while others consider this a burden — especially in a very busy life. This issue can be negotiated with your therapist. Consider what will/ might work best for you. In general, the more time and effort you commit to putting into practice what you have learned in sessions, the more successful the therapy is likely to be for you. How structured or unstructured, or time-consuming this work at home will be, will be up to you.

If you feel motivated and committed to speeding up the therapeutic process, you can plan and participate in regularly scheduled relationship centered discussions in-between the sessions with your therapist. For help with this effort, see my article (which can be found on this website) entitled “Guidelines for Talking With Your Partner About Significant Shared Relationship Issues.”


Giving Feedback to the Therapist and the Therapist Adjusting to This

As the therapy sessions go on, make sure you give a great deal of feedback to your therapist as to what is working well, and what is not, for the two of you. Your therapist very much needs this feedback in order to best help and respond to you. Each couple’s needs and preferences are unique. All therapy that is effective must be adjusted and tailored to these unique needs and preferences. One size (with regard to therapy approaches) does not fit all. An effective and competent therapist needs to be flexible in his/ her approaches with you, and needs to know many different possible ways of working with you. Put metaphorically, a highly skilled therapist has more tools in his/her toolbox with which to work.

Assessment of problems and devising possible solutions are ongoing processes. As clients, you are assessing your therapist as much as he or she is assessing you. This is indeed a “two-way street” — an ever-growing, changing, and evolving, working partnership. Continuous communication between therapist and clients needs to be direct, honest, complete, and clear.


How to Best End Work With Your Therapist

How you end work with you therapist is crucial. It is extremely important that you inform your therapist at the beginning of a session, that you plan to discontinue your sessions with him/ her. Just as it is so important to thoroughly talk things out with your partner before you decide to “break up,” separate, or divorce, it is so therapeutically important for you to talk openly and without censorship about the reasons why you want to “terminate” sessions. This kind of upfront and direct communication is a challenge for most people.

There is a great deal to be learned by “putting everything on the table” before ending the relationship. One of the least effective things you can do (but quite tempting for some people) is to “take the easy way out” by avoiding any direct “confrontation” with the therapist. It is my strong opinion that it is not in your medium or long-term best interest to quit therapy by leaving a message on the therapist’s answering machine or voice mail canceling the next scheduled appointment — with no intention of ever talking to the therapist again.

So very much can be learned about your relationship with your partner, and about yourself, by having a final session with your therapist. To not have such a session is a significant, lost opportunity. I strongly believe that assertively talking out your points of view directly with a therapist is far more beneficial to “enacting” (or “acting out” as it was termed in the past). In an enactment, one expresses oneself through one’s actions or behaviors as opposed to communicating directly by using words.

An example of an enactment would be the following: Instead of Carl telling Angie in person that he no longer wanted to remain in a relationship with her, explaining why, and then listening to her response to what he had just told her, he left a note on the kitchen table informing her that he no longer wanted to talk to her — and that he didn’t want her to contact him. How do you think you would feel if you were in Angie’s position/ role? Have you ever experienced this type of enactment in the ending of a relationship with someone your cared about? How wounded or traumatized were you (or still are) by this method or approach to ending a relationship? Why do you suppose that people end relationships in this way? If you have been the one who enacted (instead of talking) in the past, how do you now feel about handling the situation in this way?

As difficult as it might be for you, I would suggest that you give much thought to how you go about stopping your work with your therapist. (In expressing these thoughts, I hope I have not offended you or put you off. This was not my intention. In perspective, I realize that it is sometimes in a client’s best interest to find another therapist — or partner. I’m making an important distinction here between what you decide and how you go about carrying out this decision. One broader issue to consider is how psychologically mature you and your partner are going to be in saying or doing anything in your relationship.)


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The Importance of Participating in Couple Therapy

–By Lawrence Kaufman; 561-302-0568; contact@kaufmancounseling.com; www.kaufmancounseling.com

Martha and Joe have been living together for three years. When they were “courting,” their relationship seemed to be what they were both looking and hoping for. They both felt wonderfully alive, happy, and valued by the other. Their romantic feelings were strong and their sex life was exciting. And they never felt so deeply understood by a partner before. Then, as so often happens with many other couples, this slowly began to change.


Disillusionment With Your Relationship

Reality set in, and their positive fantasies and illusions about one another diminished. They started seeing more and more flaws and imperfections in their partner, and they had difficulty tolerating this. They tried and tried to talk things out, but were unable to resolve their problems together. As time went on, they stopped trying so hard to improve their relationship. They drifted apart — physically and emotionally — and found that avoiding one another kept their interpersonal conflict down.

Both of them felt so disappointed in one another and began to feel despairing about ever being happy with one another again. Their hopes and dreams of continuing romantic bliss were eroding, disintegrating, and shattering. They started to wonder if they would be better off ending their relationship. What went wrong with such a seemingly promising relationship? And what could be done now to try to improve or “save” this relationship?


Considering Couple Therapy

Martha and Joe — as most partners in a seemingly committed relationship — never gave serious thought to getting professional help for their crumbling and deteriorating relationship. Martha made some efforts to discuss her relational problems with a few of her friends and relatives, but felt embarrassed to reveal much about what was going on. Joe was the kind of guy who pretty much needed to handle personal issues on his own. This is what he had done his entire life — from childhood on. Neither one of them knew of another couple who had seen a couple counselor (or a couple who admitted to this). So they didn’t have a role model of a couple who had significantly benefited from seeing a couple therapist.


The Natural and Healthy Need for Couple Therapy

My view is that partners in strained and stressed relationships owe it to themselves (and to their children, if they have any) to get professional help for their struggles and frustrations. I believe that peoples’ mental health needs are just as important as their physical needs. Besides, the mind and body work together as a whole. What affects the body affects the mind, and what affects the mind affects the body. In this sense, it is so important to take care of all of your important needs. Just as it is wise and responsible to regularly see physicians and dentists to care for your body, it is a necessary part of responsible self-care to see mental health professionals. Just as you would see a gastroenterologist, for example, if you had a problem with your stomach or intestines, you would see a couple therapist for help with your primary relationship.

Nowadays, many people openly see counselors and therapists. I consider this to be a form of (psychological) education for living. People who work with, or have worked with, mental health professionals, tend, on average, to be psychologically healthier than people who haven’t had this experience. No longer do people need to be or feel stigmatized as disturbed, crazy, or weak if they see a therapist. But, old attitudes and beliefs, in part, still persist in some people. This old “programming,” or old “tapes” in one’s mind (often passed down through the generations), can still be an active force in preventing some people from reaching out for the help that they need and could benefit from.

In most instances, I believe, you can’t effectively fix your relationship problems on your own, any more than you could reset a broken bone in your body on your own. You need an experienced and skilled professional to help you get back on your pathways towards your goals. Self-help books and groups are fine — and sometimes are invaluable — but they are no substitute for expert, in-person assistance.

Counselors/ therapists specializing in work with couples can present you with many options, alternatives, and approaches to consider that you could never think of on your on. Knowing how to work out problems, difficulties, and challenges in intimate relationships just doesn’t come naturally. We are not born with this knowledge, and few of us have been so fortunate as to have learned these vital skills in the families and environments in which we grew up. By analogy, knowledge in our society has grown so complex that there is a limit to how well we can fix our computers when something goes wrong. We need the help of a well-trained, competent, and trustworthy computer technician to set things right. One needs the assistance of a couple therapist to help make things better. (And if this doesn’t work out well enough, the therapist can help both of you to more constructively “break up” or get divorced.)


When Couple Therapy Doesn’t Succeed

Beyond couples like Martha and Joe mentioned above, there are couples who have tried couple therapy but this “hasn’t worked out” for them. (They have not felt sufficiently helped.) At times, this may be a result of unrealistic expectations. Seeing a counselor/ therapist only once or twice, for example, usually is not a long enough time in which to make a good judgment call on the professional, and doesn’t give the therapist enough time to gather the information necessary in order to be able to be of significant help to you. It is not realistic to expect immediate, quick, and painless “solutions” to your problems together.

Assuming you view the therapist as basically competent, it usually takes a couple of months before you can properly assess how much the sessions are helping to meet your needs. You are then in a better position to do an informed cost/ benefit analysis with regard to the therapy. You can weigh the pros, benefits, and advantages, versus the cons, downsides, and disadvantages. You can also consider the possibility of having individual sessions to talk through issues, conflicts, and needs that are not being sufficiently or adequately addressed in the couple sessions. Each partner’s needs as an individual, and as part of a “we,” need to be kept in a healthy balance.

At times, a couple has a bad or unsatisfactory experience (for one reason or another) with a counselor/ therapist, and then just gives up on the possibility of trying again to get the help they need (and deserve). As in dating, where you infrequently meet the love of your life on the first try, it may take meeting with more than one counselor/ therapist before you find the fit, match, or help you are looking for. It is so important not to give up when you at first (or repeatedly) don’t succeed. I suggest you hang in there, and try to make better choices, until you find a professional with whom you can feel comfortable, safe, trusting, and confident. The investment (financially, emotionally, time-wise) you make can pay great dividends (whether or not in the end you successfully work out your issues with your partner)!


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Should I Stay in My Relationship With My Partner, or Leave?

–By Lawrence Kaufman; 561-302-0568; contact@kaufmancounseling.com; www.kaufmancounseling.com


How troubled, unhappy, and dissatisfied are you with your partner? How long have you been disillusioned and disappointed with, and ambivalent about him/ her? Do you find that you frequently alternate between feeling you want to stay in this relationship, or leave it? Do you sometimes feel confused by feeling highly motivated, at times, to do whatever it takes to make the relationship “work” — but at other times feel like you want to give up and stop the endless, fruitless struggles with your partner? Do you feel like you can neither live with him/her nor without him/her? I suspect that many other people have similar feelings, conflicts, and doubts as you. So, what can you do about this painful, confusing, and distressing circumstance (condition)?

Many people traditionally turn to friends and family members for help, perspective, and advice concerning this enormously challenging dilemma. Other people tend to try to handle their problems on their own. While they have various motives for this, many people talk about not wanting to burden others with their problems, not expecting that others will be of much help to them, not wanting to give people the opportunity to interfere in their lives, and/or feeling embarrassed, ashamed, or weak that they are unable to resolve their personal and interpersonal difficulties on their own. Still other people turn to a variety of mental health professionals and nonprofessionals for assistance.

So many emotional, family, social, financial, practical, religious, cultural and other issues may be involved with your efforts to make one of the most important decisions of your life. Because of these complicated and diverse pressures and considerations you may feel pulled towards two different extremes. On one hand, you might wish to relieve yourself of emotion draining, ongoing upset and turmoil, by “just accepting” your present relationship the way it is; you may try to convince yourself that your alternative(s) would be worse. However, on the other hand, you might significantly increase and re-intensify your efforts to get your partner to change, so as to better meet your needs.


It Takes Two to Make It Work

It has been my professional experience that, at least initially, one partner is more motivated to work out the problems in their relationship than is the other. Usually, at the beginning of couple therapy, both partners seem to be convinced that most of the problems in their relationship are the fault of the other. They often want me to “fix” their partner, and explain to me how their partner is to blame (or mostly to blame) for their ongoing problems. Thus, they start out having a much greater awareness of their partner’s, rather than their own, contributions to the difficulties in their relationship. They frequently don’t realize how much they, not just their partner, need to change if they are to achieve the relational goals they want.


“Nothing Seems to Work”

New clients of mine often tell me variations of the following: “I’ve tried everything to make things better in our relationship, but nothing seems to work!” Couple therapy sometimes is a last-ditch effort to try to save the marriage/ relationship. Indeed, some people have been trying very hard for years to change their relationships back into ones that are closer to their ideal (or like the relationships they had [or thought they had] when they first fell in love with one another — or first became committed to one another).


When It Is Too Late

I often wonder how come many couples have waited as long as they have to seek out the services of a professional couple therapist. Sadly, sometimes they have waited too long. By the time I first have the opportunity to work with them, their relationship has deteriorated so much — and they have wounded one another so frequently and deeply — that even the best therapists cannot help them put their relationship back on track again. As the expression goes: “Too much water has gone under the bridge.”

They have become emotionally disengaged, distant, and bitter. They have experienced bitterness, despair, and hopelessness for too long. They may have resorted to engaging in relationship destroying affairs, domestic violence, and/ or alcohol and other drug abuse, etc., and have cut their emotional ties quite thoroughly — sometimes years ago — with one another. At times, they have grown to intensely dislike — or even hate and detest one another.

Not infrequently, they end their relationships dysfunctionally and destructively. Again, this is very sad and regrettable — especially since this state of affairs might have been prevented with earlier intervention (that is, with the help of a third party — a competent professional).

In some instances, there could have been a much more positive and constructive ending to their relationship. In my view, even if one’s current relationship can’t be “saved,” much can be learned from doing a “psychological autopsy” on this failed relationship. This can be very beneficial for some individuals who hope to “do it better the next time.” That is, we all make mistakes and make poor judgments in our lives — (after all, we do the best we can with the knowledge and experiences we have at the time).

Sometimes the best we can do in the current moment is to learn from our previous mistakes, failures, and poor decisions. We can benefit by mourning the losses of how we lived our lives, what we could have done differently, and all the time that has passed by without enough happiness in our lives, and sufficient improvement in our primary relationship in life.  Most of all, perhaps, we may need to more completely face and mourn the loss of our hopes and dreams for a lifetime with our partner. Eventually, we can summon up our courage and confidence to open ourselves up to finding another opportunity to do it (a close, intimate relationship) better the next time.


Finding New Hope

Constructive endings (of relationships) can also be seen as containing seeds of constructive new beginnings. We then get back up after being knocked down (as in a “prize-fight”) and then create and take advantage of new opportunities to find happiness and satisfaction in a new, healthier, and better functioning relationship. At least then, something good can come out of something bad. The past doesn’t necessarily have to endlessly repeat itself. We can find a way out of our previously scripted, repetitive patterns. We can learn to re-author our self-scripts (the blueprints of our lives) to create a better, happier, and more fulfilling life story for ourselves.


The Dilemma of Staying Or Leaving: Further Considerations

Now let’s get back to the central issue of this article: Is it better to stay in your (painfully) imperfect relationship and try your best to make it work, or “make the best of it,” or is it better to face the painful “reality” that your relationship is emotionally over and beyond saving, and it is best to live your life without him/ her? Obviously, there are many trade-offs involved no matter what you decide in the end to do.

You probably have gone over in your mind these opposing considerations. Perhaps at times you are in touch with a desperate need to get yourself out of the limbo of feeling torn, conflicted, and worn out by all your inner doubts (and perhaps obsessions) about what should be the best course of action for you to take. What are you to do when the advantages of staying in the relationship are just as convincing as the advantages of leaving the relationship?


Additional Ideas That Might Help You Make Up Your Mind

I now suggest that you step back from your seemingly opposite choices — your irresolvable dilemma — and consider additional options that you might have before you make your final decisions. Below are some further ideas and strategies for you to think about, or re-consider:

* Start working with a therapist — individually or jointly (that is, with both you and your partner present), preferably both — who specializes working with relationship issues.

* Read self-help books on relationship issues. One book you may wish to start with is Couple Skills (Second Edition): Making Your Relationship Work (2006), by Matthew McKay, Patrick Fanning, and Kim Paleg.

* Plan regularly scheduled meetings (dates) with you partner so that you can focus specifically on relationship issues between the two of you. (See my article entitled “Guidelines for Talking With Your Partner About Significant Shared Relationship Issues” for some helpful perspectives and ideas on this issue.) You might, for example, decide to spend every Sunday morning, from 9 – 9:30, talking about unresolved relationship issues between the two of you. In these discussions it would important for you to focus much more on process than content. That is, put a priority on how you talk to one another rather than on what you talk about. One bottom line is that as a result of these intentional and focused conversations you will gain some very important information about both yourself and your partner, and about your shared relationship.

* Keep a daily, personal journal on the most important feelings, thoughts, experiences, and reactions you have had related to your primary relationship. When doing this, place the most emphasis on your emotions and feelings. Focus particularly on identifying, labeling, and expressing these feelings. If you have a concern about privacy, you can destroy what you have written after you have written it. It’s up to you to decide how much you choose to initiate discussions with your partner on these personal issues and reflections.

* Read the other articles on this website. They could help clarify some of the issues you are struggling with.

* Monitor more closely what you say and don’t say, and do and don’t do, in relation to your partner. Think more carefully about what impact you may be having on your partner — (not just the impact s/he is having on you.) This is an important “exercise” (or self-discipline) with regard to increasing your self-awareness. Consider significantly increasing the ratio/ proportion of positive comments (such as compliments and expressions of appreciation) you make to you partner versus negative comments (such as criticisms and complaints).

* Carefully weigh practical and lifestyle (including financial, social, extended family) considerations versus emotional and psychological considerations. Also be sure to fully and fairly explore all areas of your life — including your sex life, your spiritual and religious life, and the impact on your child/ children (if you have any) of staying or leaving your relationship.

* Consider whether or not you might want to try a trial separation prior to making your split permanent. Actually living through the experience, on a day-to-day basis, of not physically being with your partner, may provide you with valuable intellectual (cognitive) and emotional insights into your situation. Whatever you decide in the end may then be the result of giving yourself the best opportunity to have fewer regrets in the future.


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Reasons Why People Delay Seeking the Services of a Couple Therapist

–By Lawrence Kaufman; 561-302-0568; contact@kaufmancounseling.com; www.kaufmancounseling.com

There are many reasons why people put off — sometimes for long periods of time — seeing a professional couple counselor in boca raton (therapist). Some of these reasons are more practical in nature, while others are more Psychologically based. Within the psychological area, there is a range of considerations — from the most consciously perceived, to those most deeply unconscious (out of awareness; not capable of being thought about consciously). Most of the time, practical considerations are intermixed (mixed together, blended, intermingled) with the psychologically based contributing factors.

Over my years of being a couple therapist, I have been intrigued by the issue of why so many couples don’t seek out professional help sooner for their relationship problems. Even sensitively raising this issue to some people immediately raises their defenses (or protective reactions). They may experience me (or another therapist) as blaming them, being nonconstructively critical, or accusing them of being negligent, psychologically deficient, or in some other way, as not being “good enough.”

A rather large percentage of partners in a committed relationship experience significant difficulties, tensions, and conflicts in these partnerships. Some of these problems have a more external focus (as a death of someone close, or conflicts over parenting) while other problems have a more internal focus (as with one of the partners having a drinking or anger management problem).

Consider the possible reasons outlined below as to why couples may have a reluctance to reaching out to a professional couple counselor/ therapist. See what resonates with, or applies to, your unique circumstances and/or with other couples you know:

*** Financial considerations may play a major part. They are already struggling to make ends meet. They don’t believe they could afford the “luxury” of seeing a (an expensive) therapist. Further, they may not see employing the services of a mental health professional as a very worthwhile investment –one that could provide sufficient or “priceless” rewards to them.

*** They already feel overloaded, burdened, and over-committed with regard to their time schedule. They may feel too exhausted or drained to add another significant time and emotional commitment to their lives.

*** They simply have not been exposed to couple therapy. They don’t know anyone who has taken advantage of this service — so they didn’t even consider this as an option.

*** They were brought up to believe that you solve your problems on your own — without the help of a third party — especially one you have to pay a fee to. They view their difficulties together as being (eventually) solvable by using common sense, their substantial intelligence, knowledge, and problem solving skills, and the resources they have in family members and friends. They may have read a lot of self-help books, and attended workshops, seminars, and marriage encounter or enrichment retreats in an attempt to improve and resolve their relational difficulties. In doing a cost/ benefit analysis on their situation, they are not convinced that engaging the services of a professional couple therapist would be of sufficient advantage to them.

*** Related to the above, a gender issue seems to be at play with regard to one’s inclination or disinclination to be in therapy. Even though we are now in the 21st century, women are still more likely overall to see psychotherapy as a beneficial resource to help them with their relationship problems. Men, in general, are less enthusiastic about what was historically called “the talking cure” but now could be referred to as “the relationship cure.” Again as a generalization, women are more likely than men to be open and motivated to talk about their problems and communicate about their emotions. Men are more likely to want to problem solve and relate on a cognitive (intellectual) basis.

On the flip side, some men — as well as some women too — might be more open to entering couple therapy than individual therapy. The reason for this is that, at least initially, the more reluctant partner (that is, the partner less enthusiastic about seeing a therapist) can enter couple therapy with the belief that their partner is the one who (predominantly) has the problems in the relationship and needs to change — not him (or her). Thus, entering couple therapy, — versus (in contrast to) individual therapy — might, for some, be experienced as a way to “save face.”

*** They previously have seen a clergy-person, coach, or another human services professional (not trained or experienced in couple therapy). They may not (adequately, sufficiently) distinguish between professionally trained persons in the helping professions from ones who are not. As a result, if they had not previously been successful in finding the help they were seeking, they may falsely conclude that this sort of help is either unavailable or they are — for whatever the reasons — incapable to getting the help they want.

*** They may be afraid of, or not be ready to face the unpleasant (or even devastating) “emotional reality” that their relationship can’t or won’t work out.

*** They may have heard about someone else, or others, who saw a professional couple therapist but didn’t have a particularly good, positive, or successful experience or outcome.

*** They may not believe that a couple therapist could help them. They may have previously had a bad (not successful or helpful) experience with a couple therapist. They may not realize that therapists have a wide diversity in their training, experience, theoretical orientations (that is, the predominant theoretical approaches they use as a framework in which to help couples), and professional competence. In addition, different therapists can have very different personalities. The partners may not realize enough about the importance of finding a fit or match with the personality or style of the therapist they choose to work with.

*** They have negative expectations of what the therapist might say and recommend to them. They may anticipate judgment, criticism, blaming, shaming, ridiculing, and/ or scolding, etc. — as perhaps one of their parents had treated them previously. (This is called a “transference” reaction. They expect and anticipate that the therapist will relate to them as a significant person in their past related to them. That is, their past experiences color or affect their expectations in the present, and in the future.) They defensively fear that the therapist will try to control them, tell them what to do, prescribe homework to them they didn’t want to do or have time to do, side with their partner against them, like their partner better than them, or disappoint them by not being particularly helpful to them.

*** They believe that being in individual therapy is sufficient to help them with their relationship problems, difficulties, and challenges. They are not aware that people who are only in individual therapy are more likely to decide to end their romantic relationship than those who have their partner participate in couple therapy. It is generally much easier to convince an individual therapist than a couple therapist that your partner is largely or predominantly at fault for the (large majority of the) problems in your relationship. I suspect that many primary relationships dissolve or end prematurely and unnecessarily because one or both partners find it easier or less painful (at least in the short run) to blame or reject their partner than to accept their fuller responsibilities in contributing to and sustaining the problems in their relationship.

*** Sometimes one of the partners finds a particular topic, problem, or area of concern so anxiety, embarrassment, or shame provoking, and difficult to talk about — if not think about — that he or she wants to avoid it as much as possible. This is a relationship concern that would be very difficult for the partner to even discuss in confidence with an individual therapist. To bring this issue up with one’s “intimate” partner present, in front of a couple therapist, might feel (almost) unbearable and intolerable.

The area of sexuality stands out in this context. Let’s say that one of the partners expects to be embarrassed, humiliated, devastated, judged, or rejected by talking openly about his or her homosexual or heterosexual activities, actions, or fantasies. Disclosure of one of these secrets might lead to the end, or feared end, of the relationship. Think of how difficult it might be for a partner to disclose about the following: an affair, an “addiction” to Internet pornography or visiting strip clubs or bath houses, having a paraphilia (a preference for, or addiction to, unusual sexual practices), or sexual fantasies the partner would (probably) find unacceptable. Under these difficult circumstances, a distancing, withdrawing, and avoiding partner would offer a number of reasons, rationales, rationalizations, and excuses to “get out of” going to a couple therapist.

*** On still a deeper psychological level, the prospect (or anticipation) of being in couple therapy may induce (influence, cause, or bring about) one or both of the partners’ (largely unconscious) fears of intimacy and closeness. For example, due to previous traumatic attachment relationships in their life — especially in childhood — they may be conditioned (or neurologically wired or programmed) to expect to become retraumatized if they should again become very vulnerable with, dependent on, or deeply love another. If this pertains (relates) to their situation, they may find it less painful to end their current relationship than to explore (or “dig” into) the deeper conflicts, personality deficits, relational patterns, or other issues that are so frightening for them to face and then work on improving or resolving.


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Guidelines for Talking With Your Partner About Significant Shared Relationship Issues

–By Lawrence Kaufman; 561-302-0568; contact@kaufmancounseling.com; www.kaufmancounseling.com

Talking constructively and effectively with your primary partner in life is both a skill and an art. It takes much deliberate effort, good judgment, and good intentions to make it work well. We are not born with these abilities — but only the potential to develop them. We need to learn specific communication and relationship skills to enable us to reach our goals. We also need to develop certain emotional, mental, and communicative competencies (capabilities of consistently communicating well). That is, we need to become increasingly capable and competent — both verbally and non-verbally — in what we say, and in what we do. We need the abilities to reflect on our interactions together, be curious about what we observe — both about our partner and ourself — and be as non-defensive as possible throughout the process.

A relatively small percentage of partners in committed relationships have had the opportunity to learn these skills — either in the families in which they grew up, or subsequently as adults. One of the reasons for this is that our educational system, society, and even the dominant counseling and psychotherapy methods that have been available to us have been over-focusing on cognitive (intellectual) knowledge and skills versus social and emotional skills and abilities. The current research in neuroscience (brain science), I believe, confirms this point of view.

So, it is time for many of us to re-focus our efforts and learn what is necessary to be able to communicate much more effectively and productively with our loved ones. I believe you can do a great deal on your own to improve the quality of your serious conversations together. Some of the ideas I will be sharing with you on this topic you can find in self-help books, but others may be new to you.

Recall that the first word in the title of this article is “guidelines.” Consider the points I have outlined below to be ideas available to talk out with your partner. These are not “facts” or the “right way” to handle your discussions. Rather, they are suggestions for you to think about and then decide for yourselves how helpful and beneficial they could be for you. If you don’t particularly like some of the ways I have organized, structured, or presented the conversational guidelines below, you can modify them to suit your unique and specific needs. The most important bottom line is what works for you.


Discussion Guidelines

*** The first step is to agree with your partner that it is worthwhile, and in your best interests, to make a deliberate effort to work on improving your shared relationship skills. Key goals here are to enhance and improve the quality and satisfaction levels of your discussions, and to increase your levels of intimacy.

*** Next, it is important to plan well when you will be engaging in these focused conversations. Agree on a specific day and time period to talk.  It is important to arrange for a talk that is neither too long nor too short. Then make sure you do not talk longer than planned. (You can later plan for longer talks if you agree.) You will need time after the talk to reflect on how it has gone; this will  involve what has gone well, and what has not. Make brief written notes so that you do not forget key points discussed and experienced. This written record (which may not seem “natural” for some people to do) could be quite useful before, or at the time of, your next talk.

*** Be sure to arrange your discussion so that you will have a minimum amount of distractions. (Examples: Turn off your cell phones and television before your talk begins. Arrange to have a babysitter during this time. Make sure you fulfill certain work or household obligations and responsibilities prior to this prearranged, relationship building discussion time.)

*** Agree beforehand to honor the “equal time rule.” That is, each one of you will be talking (and then listening) 50% of the time. Talks usually are usually much more effective when they are true dialogues — not monologues.

*** Also, these kinds of conversations usually go better when you keep your turns of talking short. Try limiting your turns to a few sentences at a time. This allows the other to remember what you have said and then to respond to you. On the other hand, if let’s say that during your turn you make a half a dozen different points, your partner may then only respond to two or three of these — which is a natural tendency.

*** Before your talk, agree on whether or not you might benefit by recording your conversation. One advantage of recording your interchange is that you can later listen back to it after you have run into a problem. You then might be in a better position to be more objective about yourself and your partner, and the conversation you just created together. This might be a good way to learn about yourselves.

*** Prior to your first intentionally planned, serious discussion about issues in your shared relationship, read two other articles I have written (and posted on this website page): “How to Improve Your Communication Skills in Your Committed Relationship” and “What to Avoid Saying and Expressing in Your Intimate Relationship.” Reading these articles will increase the chances that your talk together will proceed more constructively.

*** When you first start your talk, it is important to agree on an agenda. Both of you have equal responsibility to come into the discussion prepared to propose or suggest a particular topic or issue to talk about. Usually, the more specific you can be, the better.

*** As far as deciding on the content of what you will be talking about, different partners and different couples have different preferences and strategies. Some people prefer to start off with a minor and noncontroversial issue — that is, one that is least likely to lead to significant conflict between the two of you. Other people, though, prefer to start off with one of the most important unresolved and pressing problems between the two of you. This may seem more relevant and satisfying to you. Whichever approach you take — or one in between — will play an important part in how the discussion may turn out in the end. After having several planned talks with one another, you may wish to experiment with different approaches to setting the agenda. You might, for example, decide to take turns with regard to which one of you sets the agenda at each of your planned talks. The bottom line is to find an approach — sometimes by trial or error — that works best for both of you.

*** When you are talking back and forth with one another, place a special emphasis on saying and expressing many more positive than negative messages to the other. Examples of “positive” messages/ communications are:

* Giving your partner compliments

* Expressing appreciation

* Telling them that what they just said helped you feel better understood

* Letting them know the ways in which you value and care for them

* Recognizing their good intentions and the ways in which they have changed for the better

* Being non-defensive in response to what they have just said to you

(Note: As you can realize, being positive in these and other ways will only be constructive and effective if you are authentic and genuine in what you say.)

*** Keep in mind that even more important than the actual words you say are the verbal and nonverbal accompaniments (additions) to your actual words. Examples of these most important dimensions of communication are:

* Your tone of voice (which might indicate how interested, frustrated, or patient you are with your partner). Included here is the rate, intensity, and inflection (pitch and loudness) of your voice.

* Facial expressions

* Level of eye contact

* Body language — including gestures. (Note: To “gesture” is to use motions of the hands, arms, legs, or body as a means of intentional [conscious] or unintentional [unconscious] communication/ expression.)

*** Keep in mind the following points: When talking — be brief, clear, and to the point. Also, continually monitor yourself so that you can actually respond to what the other has said before redirecting (changing the subject) to a thought (or issue, concern, point, etc.) you preferred to focus on. When talking, pay close attention to how well your partner seems to be listening to and understanding you, and when s/he wants to reply to what you have just said.

*** Over my years of doing couple therapy, I have found that partners in a couple relationship often tend to run into problems and get bogged down when they attempt to talk out their shared difficulties and other challenges. Self-help books can help, but they are no substitute for regularly scheduled sessions with a therapist specializing in working with couples. Many relationship problems, and many relationships, in my view, are just too complex and deeply rooted to be able to be repaired and transformed by yourselves without the help of a trained, experienced, and competent therapist. This being said, I want to share with you three key principles (outlined below) that I find stand out as being potentially very useful and helpful to you.

*** The first important principle relating to how to have more successful dialogues with your partner is to put a priority on process over content. By this I mean, how you talk to one another (the process) is much more important than what you talk about (the content).

I will now give you an example of what I mean by the difference between focusing on process (that is, the manner or form of communication used in conversation) versus content (what we commonly focus on when we try to discuss issues with an intimate other).

Let’s say Leslie says to Lou in an accusing and critical tone (with the facial expressions that go along with this): “Why didn’t you bring home the pizza like we agreed?” (There’s much we could analyze about this statement and potential interaction, but I want to limit our discussion now to a couple of central points.)
*** First, an example of a (dysfunctional, or nonconstructive) “content” response to this question might be: (Said in a casual, matter of fact voice) “I was very busy. It just slipped my mind.” We can usually assume that an interaction like this one has occurred previously (if not repeatedly) in this relationship. Notice that neither one them says how they are feeling (an important point I will expand on soon), and neither one of them makes an effort to avoid pushing the other’s buttons (That is, we can see from the start where this “conversation” is going — and it sure won’t be constructive!) Part of focusing on the process is to be very tuned in to how constructive or not is the course of an evolving conversation, and then interrupt (put on pause and step back to observe) this conversation before it deteriorates even further.

*** The second important principle to keep in mind is to give priority to focusing on the distinction between thoughts and feelings. This is a principle that is often minimized or overlooked in both self-help books and professional books and journals. Often, when I ask many new clients what they feeling at a particular point, they tell me instead what they are thinking. They are not differentiating (making the distinction between) emotions (feelings) and cognitions (thoughts, intellectual activities, etc.). This is a very important distinction with many consequences and implications. (For further clarification on this important issue, see my article entitled “The Primary Importance of Feelings in Couple Therapy.”)

*** On a practical level, when you are attempting to have a serious discussion about your relationship, it is crucial that you stop the conversation frequently to talk about the feelings you are having at the present moment and the feelings you are perceiving (picking up on) from your partner. All too frequently, one (negative, unpleasant) feeling piles up after another until you reach an emotional “critical mass” — “the straw that broke the camel’s back.” (That is, your or your partner’s unexpressed feelings will tend to “silently” accumulate until one of you either suddenly explodes or withdraws. This will end any attempt you have made together to constructively talk out your unresolved issues.)

*** If you find you have ongoing difficulties distinguishing feelings from thoughts (emotions from cognitions), distinguishing one feeling from another, finding the appropriate word labels for different feelings, accurately expressing the degree to which you are having a feeling or combination of feelings, expressing these feelings constructively, or being either overly emotional or lacking in conscious emotional reactions, I would suggest you consider arranging a consultation with a therapist who puts a priority on deeper self-knowledge and these necessary, core communication skills. (Note that “communication,” as used here, refers to both interpersonal (external) and intrapsychic [internal — within yourself] exchanges and dialogues.)

*** The third important principle related to how to have more successful dialogues with your partner is to learn the skills involved with doing “detailed, slow motion analysis.” By this I mean, it is important for both of you to work together to pay much attention to seemingly small details in your verbal and nonverbal interchanges, and to considerably slow down the pace of your discussions.

*** A great deal of meaning can be communicated in a short period of time — especially between two intimate partners. By slowing down your conversation you can give yourself the time you need to take in, digest, and metabolize (or psychologically work through) what has been communicated. Put another way, you can think of looking at your conversation through a magnifying glass, or think of how you can press the pause button on your DVD’s remote control so that you can freeze one particular frame of a movie so that you can look at it more carefully.

*** Often, (enthusiastic) partners attempt to accomplish too much in a particular conversation. This can be counterproductive — that is, work against your best interests. Be careful to not allow yourselves to become overloaded and overwhelmed. This can set you back rather than move you forward as you had intended. You can begin modestly (thinking small) before you attempt to tackle the central, most important, problems, difficulties, and challenges in your relationship (looking at your relationship with a wide angle lens).

*** At the conclusion of your present talk, you can decide when you will talk next. An alternative to this is for the two of you to agree (if this is possible schedule-wise) to have a “standing” (regularly scheduled) discussion time. This way you will not have to spend your time renegotiating each time when you will talk next. You thus can plan your schedules weeks in advance.


In Closing
Congratulations on coming this far in reading through these rather lengthy discussion guidelines. This in part tells us that you have the motivation and persistence to improve your relational life — and at least give it your best shot. With some couples, there is a certain amount of uncertainty and ambiguity (uncertainty of meaning or significance) concerning where this all will be going. While there are no guarantees that the particular relationship you are trying to repair and improve will work out, the ideas and skills you have learned here can always be used to your advantage in other relationship. (So there will be a valuable payoff for you no matter how this particular relationship turns out.)

Hopefully, these proposed guidelines will help give you a foundation for putting together or devising your own set of guidelines that best meet your unique and specific needs and circumstances. This is a creative effort that will probably be subject to many revisions and fine tunings during upcoming, ever-changing circumstances. I wish you well on your challenging, yet exciting journey towards a more fulfilling and satisfying relationship together.


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Communication Skills Self-Test for Couples

–By Lawrence Kaufman; 561-302-0568; contact@kaufmancounseling.com; www.kaufmancounseling.com

Introduction and Instructions:

How good would you say your communication skills are when talking, negotiating, and arguing with your partner? How good do you think your partner’s communication skills are with you? How good do you think your partner perceives his/ her communication skills to be when talking with you? How do you think your partner rates the quality of your communication skills when talking with him/ her? And, finally, how much does the constructiveness of both of your communication skills deteriorate when you become emotional, “in the heat of battle”?

The “self-test” below presents a number of short interactions between intimate partners. In each “scene,” or mini-script, one or both of these spouses or partners is experiencing some negative feeling(s) towards the other. Try to put yourself in the place of both of these participants and decide what is the most constructive thing the person could say or do (or not say or do) under these challenging, and emotionally triggering, circumstances. Also, try to anticipate what answer (A, B, C, or D) your partner might select as the most appropriate. By talking, reflecting on, and discussing this self-test with your partner, you probably could learn some important things about yourself, your partner, and your shared relationship.

1. Mark is exhausted from a long, hard day at work, and a tough commute home. As soon as he opens up the front door of their apartment, he yells out in frustration to Ann: “What a mess!” What do you think is Ann’s best response to Mark at this moment?

A. “Why do you always have to be so critical of me when you first come home?”

B. Say nothing.

C. “Yes, it is unusually messy here today. I’ll have to explain about this later.”

D. “You sound upset — and I don’t really care.”


2. Sue has been waiting for a good time to tell Joe something important that has been on her mind. Finally, she says to him: “Your heavy drinking has become more and more of a problem. I want you to cut down.” Joe’s best response to Sue would be to say:

A. “I haven’t been drinking heavily. Besides, don’t tell me what to do.”

B. “You should talk. You drink more than I do.”

C. “I didn’t know this bothered you so much. Why didn’t you tell me this sooner?”

D. “I would like to cut down myself. Do you think you could help me with this?”


3. Jose has been feeling horny. He feels a need for affection and sexual comforting. While Carmen is washing the dishes in the sink, he suddenly and vigorously grabs her from behind. Her best response to him in this circumstance would be to say:

A. “I told you not to do this while I’m cleaning up! You scared me.”

B. “That feels good — but I have a lot to clean up first. Do you think you could wait about a half hour?

C. “All you think about is sex! As usual, you’re just thinking about your own needs.”

D. Nothing. (The strategy here is to ignore him when he is doing something she doesn’t like.)


4. Leslie and Karen report that they had been seemingly talking about “nothing” (that is, what appeared to be routine issues of daily living together) when “out of the blue,” their discussion “turned south” (deteriorated) for reasons unknown to them. They found themselves having strong negative feelings (including annoyance, frustration, and hurt) towards one another. Under these circumstances, what would have been the best thing one or both of them could first have done or said to their partner:

A. They could have “stepped back” from this increasingly tense situation by switching their minds into a more objective position (point of view). That is, they could have become more self-reflective and calmed their emotions. Then they would have been better able to try to figure out what had set them off.

B. Just walk away until they calmed themselves down.

C. One could have said to the other: “Why don’t you calm down!” This is not getting us anywhere.”

D. One could have said to the other: “Just listen to yourself! You sound hysterical. I can’t talk to you when you get like this. You need to get some professional help.”


5. Michelle was driving the car, with William in the front passenger seat. They were a bit lost — looking for a restaurant they hadn’t been to before. Suddenly, Michelle spotted the restaurant on the other side of the street and made a quick U-turn. William got startled by this, and a little scared. At this point it could have been best if William had said the following to Michelle:

A. (Said in an angry tone) “What the hell are you doing?” You could have gotten us into a bad accident!

B. (Said in a moderate tone) “I don’t appreciate what you just did. I feel you used poor judgment here.

C. “I got scared by you sudden U-turn. My heart is racing now.”

D. “Let’s talk about this later.”


6. Penny and Corey did some entertaining at their home that evening. Each has invited over a couple they are friendly with. The three couples first sat together in the living room for two hours talking about a variety of issues. Then the women went into the kitchen to talk further while the men watched the football game. At the end of this enjoyable evening, after the company had gone, Penny and Corey talked about their experiences with their friends. In the course of the conversation, Penny revealed that she had told the “girls” about the problems Corey’s daughter from his first marriage had been having. Corey was furious when he heard this. “You have no right to tell everybody about my personal business! I can’t trust you.” In response to this, Penny could best have said to Corey:

A. “You’re getting overly dramatic again. You’re always making mountains over mole hills.”

B. “I have a right to tell my friends whatever I want. So what if they know something about Cynthia (Corey’s daughter)?”

C. “I’m sorry if you are upset about what I said. I’ll be more careful in the future not to tell you what I talk about with my friends.”

D. “I’m sorry you’re so upset. I didn’t realize that you would have this reaction. I’ll be more careful in the future what I tell our friends about your personal life.”


7. Jason is angry at Betty. He just found an entry in the checkbook for an unexpected expense. He storms into the room where she is, to confront her. “Why didn’t you tell me about this check that you wrote? I thought we had an agreement to talk about things like this before spending money?” Betty could most constructively reply to Jason by saying the following:

A. “I knew if I talked to you about this you wouldn’t want to spend the money.”

B. “It’s my money too. You sound just like my father.”

C. “I meant to talk to you about this before, but I forgot to. Let’s talk about this calmly so that we can learn more about this kind of misunderstanding so it doesn’t happen again.”

D. “All you think about is money. I’m tired of hearing your constant criticism of me. Pick, pick, pick.”


8. “I feel pissed off with you for not walking King earlier. I’m fed up with your lack of responsibility” Ada said to Perry. Which of the following choices could be the best way for Perry to respond?

A. “I’m sorry I wasn’t able to get home earlier as I had planned. Dan (his boss) called a last-minute meeting before closing time.”

B. “I’m glad you can tell me how you are feeling, but I resent your remark about my being irresponsible.”

C. “I feel bad for King. And I didn’t mean to upset you. Remember what our counselor told us about how your tone of voice has a much more powerful effect than the words you use?”

D. “I realize I don’t have a good track record recently on being responsible. I’m working on changing that. However, in this instance I actually did walk King earlier. He just wanted to go out again after that.”


9. Bell is screaming again at Evan: “You’re such a chicken shit! Why don’t you stand up for yourself like a man? I’m tired of having to put up with you. I can easily find somebody better than you to be with.” To this onslaught (an almost daily occurrence), Evan doesn’t respond. He just walks out of the room to get away from Bell and to sit in front of the television set. Why do you suppose that Evan doesn’t respond verbally to Bell?

A. Because he has learned that when he does she then comes down even harder on him.

B. Because he is so frightened of the potential rage reaction building up inside of him. He’s afraid that he might physically abuse her if he stayed in her presence.

C. He is so afraid of becoming like his rage-aholic father, or like provocative Bell, that he shuts down, runs away, and detaches himself.

D. Possibly A, B, and C.


10. Mary has a conscious philosophy that it is best to never give in to negative feelings she might be having towards others. This is what her mother taught her to do as a little girl. She tells herself that she is strong when she doesn’t take personally what others say to her. She believes that the best strategy she can use when dealing with other people is to maintain a friendly attitude and avoid conflict at all costs. She also believes it is always in her best interests to not think about whatever might bother her. “Nothing good comes from complaining and obsessing” she tells herself. How much do you agree or disagree with Mary’s approach to communication with others and within herself?

A. A great deal.

B. Not at all.

C. Somewhat agree.

D. Somewhat disagree.



I have written the above “self-test” mainly to encourage you, the reader, to reflect on the challenges and rewards involved in trying to come up with the “best” answer for each of the ten vignettes (stories, narratives) presented. In this process, you can gain the opportunity to learn more about yourself, your partner, and your relationship together, by analyzing the reasons why an “incorrect” answer isn’t helpful or constructive. I hope you have found this exercise to be of interest to you, and thought-provoking.

I assume there will be some readers who will be disappointed that I have not presented them with a rating for what it means to get a certain number of answers “correct.” All I can offer you is my view of what the “best” answer to each question is. (Keep in mind that what is “best” in one context or situation may not be best in another.) You may or may not agree with me. That is your prerogative (right). We can learn from one another by having different opinions. Below is my list of “best” answers:

1. C

2. D

3. B

4. A

5. C

6. D

7. C

8. A – D (A “trick” question.)

9. D

10. B


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Important Topics and Issues to Talk About in Couple Therapy

–By Lawrence Kaufman; 561-302-0568; contact@kaufmancounseling.com; www.kaufmancounseling.com


Have you ever had the experience of not being clear about what you and your partner could/ would talk about in a couple session? After awhile, many veterans of couple therapy (and some beginners too) “draw a blank;” they don’t want to rehash what they have already talked about, yet they can’t think of another focus that could open doors to a fresh and revealing dialogue. Below I have listed a number of topics and issues (not in any particular order) that you and your partner can consider talking about. Further, one or more of these points might stimulate another idea, or several ideas, that you might decide to give central focus to, in your couple therapy sessions.

This list is not meant to be comprehensive. It contains a variety of possibilities of what to think about and talk about with regard to your relationship. In my view, the more comprehensive you are in what you bring up for consideration, exploration, and discussion in couple sessions, the more you will get out of the overall process.

In making your best efforts to make good use of these sessions, you are helping to increase the chances that you will successfully achieve your goals in therapy. You will become truly more intimate with one another as a result. You will end up knowing one another better than a large majority of people in close relationships. In most cases, this will result in a greater degree of happiness and satisfaction with your special bond together. Deeper and long-lasting love, trust, and commitment actually take a lot of work to achieve and maintain. Congratulations on your courage to take this challenging yet highly rewarding interpersonal and intrapersonal (within yourself) journey of discovery.


Topics and Issues You Can Explore in Couple Therapy Sessions

**The circumstances of how the two of you first met, what first attracted you to one another, how you became serious with one another, and how you then decided to make some form of commitment to one another.

**The most significant experiences you had — externally (in relationship to others and the outside world) and internally (within yourself — especially on an emotional level) in your childhood and young adulthood.

**If you have one or more children: The nature and quality, and challenges and joys, of your individual and joint relationships with your children. Similarities and differences in your child-rearing practices, philosophies, and goals. How much do you see eye-to-eye in the ways in which you discipline your child/ children? How coordinated and “on the same page” are you with regard to how you raise and relate to your child/ children?

**How similar and compatible are the two of you in terms of financial priorities, values, ethics, and goals? How much do you trust one another with regard to money issues? To what extent do you have separate or joint financial accounts, resources, and budgets?

**How good and satisfying (or not) is your shared sex life? To what degree do you have consistent feelings of attraction and desire for your partner? To what degree are your sexual energies diverted away, or displaced from your partner onto another outlet or focus? (As with affairs, pornography, masturbation, or paraphilias (formerly called perversions).

**The nature and quality of your relationships with your own and your partner’s family members. This includes in-laws (or equivalent) and a child or children from previous marriages/relationships. How do these relationships have an impact on your current relationship?

**The role of alcohol and other drugs (prescribed or unprescribed) in your relationship.

**The impact of behavioral (process) addictions and compulsions (including gambling, shopping, spending, exercising, and compulsive sexuality) on your marriage/ partnership.

**The effects of your childhood development and experiences — including the quality of the parenting you received, and the security of the emotional attachment you established — on your current relationship. (Consider here such issues as abuse [sexual, physical, emotional], neglect, deprivation, and other damaging and traumatic experiences.)

**The effects on you, and your partner, of previous marriages and other important romantic relationships in your life.

**To what degree do you share mutual interests, hobbies, activities, and passions? How compatible are the two of you with regard to how you spend your “spare” or leisure time? How much or how little quality time do you actually spend with one another?

**The role(s) of individual friends (That is, friends of only one partner.) on your relationship. How much do you approve or disapprove of, are jealous of, resent, feel relieved or threatened by these relationships? What difference does it make to you if your partner’s friend is of the same or different gender, or sexual orientation, as your partner?

**The role(s) of couple friends on your relationship.

**If you live together, how comfortable and satisfied are you with the sharing of household responsibilities? How fair do you think is the current distribution of responsibilities? (That is, do you think your partner does his or her fair share?) To what degree do you feel taken advantage of — and feel resentful about this — or feel guilty? How pleased are you with the current arrangement where one partner may take more care of outside (of the household) responsibilities while the other may take more care of inside (within the household — your living space) responsibilities?

**How compatible or incompatible are the two of you with regard to religious and spiritual practices and beliefs? How much does this affect your shared life together?

**How compatible or incompatible are the two of you with regard to political issues?

**How involved are you in the other’s work life? What are the consequences — good and bad –of your being involved in a business together?

**How emotionally intimate are the two of you with one another? For example, some couples in their relationship are like roommates or “two ships passing in the night,” while others are best friends, soul mates, confidantes, and/or deeply emotionally connected to, and bonded with, one another.

**The impact of one or both partners’ psychiatric disorder(s)  (For example: bipolar, compulsive, phobic, eating, or other psychological problem) on your joint functioning?

**The impact and effects (short-, medium-, and long-term) of medical problems and complications, diseases (acute, chronic, life threatening), serious injuries, surgeries, and psychosomatic conditions.

**Your similar or different (compatible or incompatible) attitudes towards, and relationships with, pets and other animals.

**Your interacting sensitivities. (That is, you may have very different — sometimes opposite — habits, attitudes, beliefs, and values that clash with one another, and are a challenge to live with on a day-to-day basis.) For example, one of you may be more organized, the other disorganized; one may value punctuality (consistently being on time, and not keeping the other waiting) while the other may be more casual or “flexible” about time.

**What is the impact of your differing (different) priorities with regard to the care and protection of your body? How similar or not are you in your attitudes, values, and behaviors with regard to recommended and prescribed treatments and preventative medical and dental care? Does one of you give considerably higher priority to bodily related issues, such as grooming, weight, eating habits, exercise, and physical fitness? Does one wear a seat belt in a car, and the other doesn’t? Does one partner drive a car in a much more cautious and safe way than the other? How do your different lifestyle choices, decisions, and priorities affect your relationship?

**What have been the most important and influential effects of the differences you both brought into your current relationship from your: family of origin (the family you grew up in); extended family (relatives not living in your household); family’s culture and subculture; country of origin; religious and spiritual upbringing, etc.?

**To what degree do your attitudes and beliefs about your gender identity (male or female) and sexual orientation (gay or straight; homosexual, bisexual, or heterosexual) affect your partnership? For example, how much are your relationship roles and expectations affected by being either a man or a woman?

**Personality characteristics, behaviors, attitudes, values, styles, and nonverbal behaviors that you particularly like and appreciate about your partner. These are things that you may take for granted and not usually comment on or talk about. (For example: Aspects of their appearance — as with how they wear/ keep their hair, the clothes they wear; the sound of their voice; the ways in which they smile and laugh; the ways in which they touch you; the way they smell.)

**How compatible or incompatible are the two of you with regard to your health habits and bodily care? What are implications of this on your day-to-day relational interactions with one another?

**The recreational, social and other activities you currently or used to enjoy together.

**The smaller interactions of daily life (often so much in the background, and taken for granted, that you are not particularly aware of when they occur) that make your life together so much enjoyable, secure, and meaningful — or miserable, unsatisfying, or frustrating.

**To what extent have you prepared (emotionally, financially, etc.) for your future together and alone? What are the things (large and small) that you would miss the most about your partner if he or she suddenly died or left you? How would your life and lifestyle change as a result?

**Practical arrangements you have made, or need or want to make, in the event of the (sudden) disability or death of your partner? For example: wills; advanced medical directives; beneficiary accounts; life, long-term care, and disability insurance; funeral arrangements. How do you feel about talking about these difficult, emotionally demanding, and often taboo subjects?

**Changes you would like your partner to make in his/her appearance, behavior, habits, and ways of relating to you and to others? Also, changes you would like to make in yourself.

**How satisfied are you with your sex life? What do you like and not like about it? What would you like to do more of, or less of, or do differently? How has the quality of your sex life changed (for better or worse) over the months or years? If you are not currently having sexual relations with one another, or having sex infrequently, how do you understand this? What could you do to help yourselves in this regard? How much do your feelings of embarrassment and/ or shame (or your strong feelings with regard to maintaining your personal privacy and solving your own problems) prevent you from getting the professional help you need in this area?

**How satisfied are you with your shared social and recreational life? What would you like to keep doing, do more of, or do less of? What else would you like to do that you haven’t done before?

**Your different relationships and reactions to the technology interests of your partner. For example, some partners clash over the use (or overuse) of computers and Smart Phones.

**Differences you might have with regard to psychological “mindedness,” capacities, or motivations. Do you have the sense that the two of you are growing at about the same rate or pace emotionally and psychologically — or is there a widening gap between the two of you? Do you have significantly different attitudes and beliefs about being in psychological counseling or therapy?

**To what degree are the two of you “on the same page” with regard to how much you like/ prefer to stay home or go out? How similar or different are you with regard to preferring more alone time or together time?

**How would you characterize (assess, describe) the role of power (including control and influence) in your relationship (as with who is more in charge, makes important decisions, makes more money, is more emotionally dominant)? How do you feel about the present balance of power in the relationship? What problems do you have together over these kinds of issues?

**Where do you stand with regard to your partner’s and your own use of alcohol, nicotine, and other drugs?

**The dreams that you have while you are asleep can provide a fascinating, revealing, and interesting window into your unconscious mind. (Note: In my view, most of what happens in the mind is below the level of consciousness.) How much do you share and talk about your dreams with your partner? How much do you know about your own and your partner’s inner world? How much does each one of you know about the unconscious images, stories, and hidden memories, wishes, fears, and fantasies contained in your dream life? How much are you motivated to know about these things?


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Viewing Intimate Discussions Through a Magnifying Glass

–By Lawrence Kaufman; 561-302-0568; contact@kaufmancounseling.com; www.kaufmancounseling.com

Press the pause button! Slow down! Learn slow motion analysis! Freeze frame the action! Observe more and talk less than you usually do in a discussion with your partner! These are words of advice for how you can improve the quality of your dialogs together.

You will probably discover great benefits once you are able to slow down and reflect more on what you have just communicated — both verbally and non-verbally. You will benefit by noticing and becoming curious about a fuller range of direct and indirect interpersonal messages that have been exchanged. You will be much less likely to end up feeling as if you have been “arguing over nothing.”

This seeming “nothingness” that bogs the two of you down, and throws you off course, is actually filled with important meanings. At first, these meanings may not be apparent. They may seem invisible. You will need to work hard to discover what has been communicated from both of you — from the surface to the depths. In doing this, it is so important not to blame your partner for what doesn’t go well in your discussions. It is so much easier to see what your partner is doing “wrong” than to see and understand what you might be contributing to what is not working out well in your communications.

Most of the couples I work with are convinced, when I first start working with them, that their spouse/ partner is 90% (or whatever the high percentage is) at fault for the problems in their shared relationship. Not infrequently, they feel unfairly criticized, misunderstood, misinterpreted, and/or defensive when I give them feedback on what I perceive their contribution might be to their marital/relational difficulties.

A person needs to be relatively nondefensive in order to be able to distinguish between constructive and non-constructive criticism. A person also needs to have relatively high self-esteem and self-worth in order to be able to learn from experience and learn from another.

When I talk about viewing intimate discussions through a magnifying glass I am urging partners in close relationships to pay a lot more attention to what is being said directly, what is not being talked about, and what is being communicated non-verbally (as through facial expressions, bodily movements, and tones of voice). This kind of issue can be seen or perceived from the perspective of information processing. The more information you both are aware of — coming from yourself and from the other — the better you will be able to accurately decipher, decode,and understand what is going on within yourself, within your partner, and between the two of you.


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Detailed, Slow Motion Couple Therapy

–By Lawrence Kaufman; 561-302-0568; contact@kaufmancounseling.com; www.kaufmancounseling.com


So much happens, so quickly, with such intensity in couple therapy! Words, feelings, sensations, reactions, and counter-reactions (reactions to others’ reactions) fly back and forth — faster than our minds can process. Emotional ups and downs (crescendos and decrescendos) rapidly follow one another. Sometimes a relative calm is suddenly shattered by a volcanic-like eruption. This may be the result of a “straw that broke the camel’s back,” we can speculate. Sometimes tears subtly emerge or pour forth unexpectedly. Sometimes a disturbing memory or image surprisingly floods into consciousness.

Where did that come from? Why are we now feeling so intensely negative towards one another? Why does he/she now seem like such a stranger, adversary, or enemy? What happened? What’s going on? How can we understand this sudden deterioration in our communication skills? “But we were doing so much better!” How are we to make sense of all these confusing, disturbing, and unexpected feelings and interactions?

Couple therapy can be a messy affair — very distressing, but also very gratifying and hope building. Since so much happens in such a short period of time, and since the consequences of what happens are so important, I decided, as a therapist, to slow the process down. My aim was to help my couple clients get more meaning and benefit from their usually emotionally intense interchanges.

Below is an example of how this approach could be applied in practice — working with a couple. This is a brief part of an imagined couple session. After each person speaks, I may provide my comments. My aim is to give you “an inside look” into how I think, reason, and understand during a session. Be aware that in a typical, actual session, I do not say or exaggerate as much, nor do I go into as many details as to what I think might be going on between the partners in a couple.

As I do in actual sessions with clients, I am providing ideas here for the reader to consider. I am not presenting what I am saying as facts, the truth, or the only way to understand what is being presented. Everyone on his or her own can determine what is, and what is not, helpful and beneficial to him or her.

Note that prior to therapeutic exercises, I get both participants’ permission/ consent to interrupt them frequently. I have explained to them that I thought it might be of interest to them to hear my observations about their interactions together.


A Portion of a Couple Therapy Session
Rob to Sharon: So, what would you like to talk about today?

Therapist: Let me stop you here. (Said first looking at Rob and then at Sharon.) Do you know why am stopping you already?

(Comments: I want this couple to begin to think about and reflect upon what might be typical patterns between them. For example, does Rob typically not assert his own agenda in approaching Sharon? Is he beginning to show a pattern of shifting the focus of conversation from himself to her? Is he possibly not saying a feeling he is having at the moment?  Does he feel more comfortable taking a more intellectual approach? These are some of my first thoughts when hearing what he says, and how he is saying it.

Rob: I have no idea.

Sharon: I don’t know.

Therapist (To Rob): How typical or not is it for you to not assert your own agenda with Sharon?

Rob: I don’t know. I never gave it much thought.

Sharon: He usually waits for me to take the lead in a conversation about our relationship.

(Comment: Now they are beginning to look more closely on how they usually interact with one another.)

Sharon: I have something I’d like to bring up for discussion. (She then turns to Rob.) You never spend time with me when you come home from work.

Therapist: Let’s pause here to reflect on a couple of things. First, I think it is a plus that you have asserted what you would like to talk about. However, I suggest that before you start talking about a subject,  you first get Rob’s agreement to talk about it.

Sharon (to Rob): Is it okay if we talk about this issue?

Rob: Sure.

Therapist: Before we move forward, I want to suggest to you that you be aware of using exaggerations in what you say to Rob. I have found that most people start having defensive reactions when their partner uses words like “never,” “always,”and “all the time.” Also, I think you would be more direct and be on safer ground if you used the word “I” instead of “you.” To me, for example, there is a big difference between saying “You never…” and “I feel.”

Comments: Particularly in the beginning of a course of therapy, the therapist can usefully provide psychoeducation (psychological education) to clients. The therapist is being pro-active in heading off (nipping in the bud) the use of dysfunctional (ineffective) communication styles, and providing more functional (effective) alternatives to the less effective wording typically used.

Sharon: I get upset with you when you ignore me when you come home from work.

Commentary: Since this statement is somewhat an improvement over the previous version of what she said, the therapist decides it is best at this point not to interrupt any further the flow between them.

Rob: I’m exhausted when I get home. Why can’t you cut me some slack?

Therapist: Rob, what were you feeling when you just said that to Sharon?

Comments: The therapist intervenes (interrupts) here because he senses that the couple is soon headed for a negative interactional cycle — a repetitive (repeating), dysfunctional dialog that will only drag them down further. The therapist is also shifting the focus here to see how well Rob can identify and express his feelings, and can  distinguish between  feelings and thoughts. I find that most people tend to tell me what they are thinking when I ask them what they are feeling.

Rob: I felt put off, annoyed.

Therapist: (After Sharon does not respond for about ten seconds, the therapist says:) I’d like you to respond to what Rob just said.

Sharon: You’re always thinking about yourself!

Therapist: Let’s step back now to understand about what you just said and the impact it may have had on Rob.

Rob: See how impossible she is? (Said in an exasperated manner, as you probably realize.)

Therapist: Please let me talk to Sharon about this matter for the next couple of minutes. This is going to be in the best interest of both of you. (Slight pause. They both remain quiet. The therapist then continues, looking at Sharon.) I’m planning on saying some things to you that you may have a negative reaction to. Do I have your O.K. to say these things to you?

Comments: The therapist is modeling here, in part, practicing “meta-communication.” This is a form of communicating about the communication process itself. It has the effect of de-escalating the emotional tensions that are starting to build up between Rob and Sharon.

Sharon: That’s fine with me. I’m open to hearing what you have to say. That’s why we’re here.

Therapist: I appreciate your non-defensiveness about this. (A slight pause.) A couple of minutes ago you said to Rob “You’re always thinking about yourself!” How were you feeling when you said that to him?

Sharon: He’s so self-centered. Why can’t he think about what I’m going through, for a change?

Comment: The therapist decides to bypass (not focus on at this time) what sounds like Sharon’s blaming, attacking, and sarcasm. He wanted to control the “dosage” of his constructive criticism at this point.

Therapist: What you just said is not your feelings. I have found that a large majority of people have difficulty distinguishing between feelings and thoughts. What was your emotional reaction to Rob?

Sharon: I felt fed up with him.

Therapist: That sounds like you are starting to see the distinction between feelings and thoughts. (Slight pause.) I also want to point out to you that you started your sentence off with the word “you,” and you used the exaggerated word “always.”

Therapist continues: Listeners to this form of communication often become defensive when they hear these words. Let’s try to avoid this kind of negative interaction between the two of you. Before we continue, I want to ask you, Sharon, if you are aware of having any negative feeling towards me about what I have just said.

Comments: The therapist wants to check in with Sharon to see how she is reacting emotionally to his confrontation of her. (I believe that the relationship of the clients to the therapist is very important. However, in couple therapy — as opposed to individual therapy — the therapist tries to remain focused more on the relationship between the partners than on the relationship of each individual to the therapist. ) Timing, tact, and sensitivity are always important in a situation like this. The therapist wants to move the therapeutic process forward but not to the point of antagonizing the client. This would be counterproductive (that is — work against therapeutic progress). This type of confrontation is usually not appropriate during the initial sessions of couple therapy. Engaged in prematurely, it can lead to negative (adverse) reactions, such as clients prematurely leaving therapy.

Sharon: I’m all right with this. I’ve been in therapy before.

Therapist: Good. Now let’s play the scene again with Rob where you start off your sentence with “I,” and don’t use words of exaggeration like “always” and “never.”

Sharon (To Rob): I realize I wasn’t being as constructive with you as I could have been. It’s just that I get so upset and frustrated when I see you not taking my needs into consideration.

Therapist: I think that’s much more constructive. I’m impressed! (After a slight pause…) Rob — Sharon and I have been talking for a while together. How left out have you been feeling about this?

Rob: I’m O.K. with this. I know it’s for my benefit as well.

Comments: We certainly could continue with this dialog much further, and in greater depth. But we’ve covered a lot of ground here already. There’s plenty to think about. I want to emphasize that this session segment is somewhat artificial and condensed. In an actual session, the therapist probably would have made major modifications in what was said, how it was said, and the pace at which it was handled. The clients too probably would have handled the dialog differently as well.

What I think could be helpful to the reader is to imagine yourself from the vantage points of the three people engaged in this interchange. (Put another way, it is important to identify with each of the three people present in the room.) What can you learn from identifying with several different perspectives simultaneously? How could doing this help you get the most from your therapy sessions with your couple therapist?


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The Importance of Constructive Criticism

–By Lawrence Kaufman; 561-302-0568; contact@kaufmancounseling.com; www.kaufmancounseling.com

Situation #1

Martha: You are so irresponsible! I’m tired of your leaving things around the house. You expect me to clean up after you. I’m not your maid. Why don’t you grow up?

Jason: You’re always criticizing me! Why can’t you cut me some slack? You don’t appreciate all I do for you.

Situation #2

Al: Something has been bothering me. Is this a good time for you to talk? (If the answer is “yes”–) I get upset and frustrated with you when you leave your clothes and other things around the house. I would appreciate it if you would pay more attention to putting these things where they belong.

Alice: I feel a bit defensive, but I appreciate that you told me this constructively. I think you have a reasonable point. I will try to remember to put my things away so you don’t have to pick up after me.



Clearly, the couples in these two situations are communicating very differently with one another. The partners in Situation #1 are using a communication style which could be characterized (described) as nonconstructive (not constructive), dysfunctional (failing to serve a useful purpose), and emotionally reactive (automatically reacting in an emotional way without thinking through the consequences). These consequences may include how their partner might react to what they said — and how this, in turn could affect the nature and quality of their subsequent (later) relationship.

In contrast, the partners in Situation #2 appear to be relating more constructively and functionally (working well), and more in control of their negative emotions. Put in a simpler way, the partners in Situation #2 are using a style of communication that is more effective and constructive than the partners in Situation # 1. Some implications (or consequences) of this are that the partners in Situation #1 will be less likely to be satisfied, safe, and content, together — or even remain in their relationship — than the partners in Situation #2.


A Wider Perspective

Some authors and therapists recommend that partners in committed relationships avoid criticizing one another. Their rationale (explanation or underlying reason) is that criticizing one’s partner undermines and erodes the quality of their relationship. I think this can sometimes be the case, but often not. From my point of view, it is vital to  distinguish (differentiate) between constructive and nonconstructive criticism. Without this distinction being made, something very important will be lost in the quality and potentials of these relationships.

Here’s an analogy (similarity) to help communicate my point: When many people think of eating foods high in”cholesterol” they think of cholesterol as being all bad. However, nutritional science makes a distinction between “good” cholesterol (HDL) and “bad” cholesterol (LDL). To eliminate all cholesterol from one’s diet would not be a wise or healthy thing to do. We want to stay away from the “bad” cholesterol but eat more foods containing the “good,” health-promoting cholesterol.

This kind of distinction can be made with criticism as well. It is my strong belief that there is relationship-building and enhancing (increasing, intensifying) criticism, and relationship eroding and destroying criticism. Put another way, there is good and bad, and mentally healthy and unhealthy criticism. In evaluating the use of day-to-day criticism in intimate relationships, this distinction — between the two varieties of criticism — is crucial.

An important key for building and maintaining the quality of intimate (including romantic) relationships is the emphasis on sharing many more positive than negative interactions. Examples of positive exchanges include such things as expressing appreciation, love, caring, gratitude, admiration, respect, valuing, interest, and desire. So-called “negative” exchanges include such things as expressing anger, criticism, disappointment, frustration, resentment, envy, jealousy, and disillusionment. The expression of both positive and negative feelings, thoughts, evaluations, motives, inclinations, impressions, and reactions have their legitimate place in close relationships.

From my point of view, what is most important is that these positives and negatives are, and remain, in balance with one another. Therefore, from this perspective, two opposite forms of imbalance can occur: Relationships can be imbalanced on the side of an excess of negative interchanges, and, on the side, of an excess of positive interchanges.

For many people, it is much easier to understand how an excessive use of negative interchanges can damage relationships. When one treats one’s partner poorly, or especially abusively, it is easy to see how the mistreated partner’s self-esteem and self-worth can be reduced as a result. In addition, the mistreated partner tends to build up (often not expressed directly) many negative feelings and attitudes towards his/her partner. It is also easy to understand how being treated well, respectfully, considerately, etc. can help that partner feel good about himself/herself. So, it follows that people who have high self-worth and self-esteem will be less defensive and more constructive and positive in their interactions with others.

What is sometimes more difficult to understand (grasp, comprehend) is how problems in relationships can come about when, for whatever the reasons, one or both of the partners feel they must hold back from saying (or even thinking) how they really feel towards the partner. Some partners who get locked into daily verbal and emotional combat with one another, have many resentments built up towards one another — both consciously and unconsciously (out of awareness). Under these circumstances, they withhold verbalizing their positive feelings towards one another. They sometimes do this because they don’t want the resented partner to get the satisfaction of knowing that they are needed, desired, and depended upon.

In addition, sometimes they withhold verbalizing or sharing their positive feelings towards one another because they feel vulnerable and weak just having these needs! To further complicate matters, research shows that when people are in tense, conflicted, and unhappy relationships they actually miss perceiving (or even noticing) half of all the positive expressions that their partner is actually making. In other words, due to “negative bias” — picking up (selectively) on negatives from others much more than picking up on positive communications — they end up with a “self-fulfilling prophesy.” That is — whatever they fear experiencing with their partner, they are more likely to actually experience due to their mindset –their pre-existing expectations. So, if you expect something bad to happen to you, you will be more on the lookout for the”bad.” But, if you have a general tendency to see the good in others and situations, you will more likely find the “good.”

It is important for partners in close relationships to be authentic and genuine with one another. For relationships to be truly intimate (not restricted to surface communications), it is necessary to allow oneself to be vulnerable by sharing on deeper levels. There is some risk taking involved with opening up about oneself — particularly in relationship with your partner. You hope that your partner will reciprocate (return in kind or degree), but there are no guarantees that this will happen.

You may need to be an initiator of intimacy and blaze new emotional trails. This kind of opening up may be unfamiliar or even scary for your partner. The rewards can be great, though, if you can both (respectfully and sensitively) talk about things that are bothering you about the other, and your relationship together. Sometimes your partner may respond to your disclosure by saying something like: “I never knew you felt that way. I’d be glad to make the change you are suggesting. I want you to be happier with our relationship.” This is one of the joyous rewards of an intimate, ongoing dialog and relationship.

In an opposite situation, there are so-called “pseudo-mutual” (falsely mutual, just apparently close) couples who avoid conflict at all costs. They need to maintain the illusion that they have an excellent or even ideal marriage/relationship. They cannot tolerate differences of opinion, or different points of view, preferences, or beliefs. They share a strong philosophy and inclination to not rock the boat or make waves in their relationship. They avoid risking a change in the status quo. They have an almost phobic-like fear of disagreeing and arguing with one another, and experiencing themselves as separate individuals.

One or both of these “pseudo-mutual” (or falsely close) partners may predominantly (or mostly) have a “false self” — an outward appearance, originating in childhood as a survival mechanism — that is designed to adjust smoothly and non-conflictually with their environment. Hidden beneath this surface, “people pleasing” mask, is a “true” (more real and authentic) self –waiting to be found, liberated, and developed.

Since these conflict avoidant partners are threatened by differences, and by simultaneously being both part of a couple and being separate individuals, they will suppress, repress, block out, deny, or avoid all (or nearly all) criticism of their partner. What results from this form of adjustment is a superficial shell of a seemingly intimate, but actually non-intimate, distanced relationship. They hardly know one another because they find comfort, familiarity, and value in maintaining rigid, unchanging (and therefore non-growth producing) idealized beliefs about one another.

They may stay with one another for long periods of time — even a lifetime — but at the cost of cutting off the possibilities of experiencing a more enriching personal development and having a more gratifying and satisfying life together. For these types of couples, learning how to be constructively critical of one another would open many doors to a more energized, fulfilling, and goal oriented, shared life.

An important question to ask is: What happens to one’s negative feelings when they are never expressed (directly and overtly) towards one’s partner? I believe that the individual who keeps so much inside (unverbalized and not even thought about) ends up with a variety of unpleasant symptoms. These symptoms usually are not mentally linked or connected to the unresolved issues in their primary relationship. (Such symptoms include bodily, physical and medical problems — as with psychosomatic problems [as relating to sleeping, eating, digestion, sexuality, etc.] which do not yield or respond to medical treatments); mood and mental disturbances and disorders — as with anxiety and depression, alcohol and other drug problems, and a large variety of other problems and difficulties.)


In Conclusion

With regard to partners’ use of criticism in close relationships, there can be relationship-based problems on two ends of the spectrum (continuum). There can be too much criticism, and too little criticism. There can be too much negativity, and too little positivity. There can be a lack of clarity (clearness) of the distinctions between constructive and nonconstructive criticism. One needs to consider the advantages and disadvantages of both expressing and deciding not to verbalize one’s criticisms of one’s partner. Every relationship and (almost) every interaction within a relationship is different. What works for one couple may not work for another couple. What works in one circumstance (including stage of life) may not work well in another.


General communication related principles that could be helpful to you with regard to the issues talked about in this article are as follows:

1. Reflect carefully on what you say before you say it. Consider the potential consequences on your relationship if you decide to say something, or not say something.

2. Even if you feel you are in the right in saying something to your partner, and you say it in the most constructive way you know how, your partner still might react defensively and either ignore what you have said, be unduly threatened by this (as due to a pre-existing sensitivity), or retaliate against you.

3. Seriously consider backing off if you see that your good intentions and motives are not having a good effect. Consider bringing the issue back up at another time when you think the circumstances may be more to your mutual advantage.

4. Be prepared to stop pushing your partner to change when you see from repeated attempts that your efforts to accomplish this are producing more negative results or consequences (to the entire relationship) than they are worth.

5. Ask your partner if s/he would be willing to read this article.

6. If you get stuck and find you can’t get past this problem together, consider seeing a professional couple therapist to help you and your partner get past your blockages and stuck points.


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